Discontinuous phenomena, in which objects may behave continuously and sometimes discretely are not only found in nature and under laboratory conditions but also in simple, familiar contexts. For example, this phenomenon is skillfully incorporated into the internal structure of mechanical wristwatches. Unless an extremely small amount of state-dependent impulse is applied intermittently, the reciprocating rotational movement of the balance and hairspring, which is the heart of the mechanical wristwatch, cannot be maintained. The small amount of state-dependent impulse, which is often overlooked, can make a significant difference; however, very few studies have examined this subject. This study assumes the underlying cause of discontinuous behaviors as impulses generated when an object reaches a particular state, assuming that the continuous behavior follows the Liénard system, which is widely studied in the field of electrical circuits. The main theorem provides the conditions under which the effect of the impulses causes a stable limit cycle in the Liénard system, even if no limit cycle exists when there are no impulses. The Poincaré–Bendixson theorem for discontinuous dynamical systems and phase plane analysis are used to prove the main theorem. Several examples and their simulations are provided to illustrate the main theorem.
Source : Nonlinear Analysis: Hybrid Systems